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**NEED DONE BY 7PM PST**A Total of ONLY 1 youtube video and its following 2 questions. Very easy, straightforward, and simple.**Must be at least 3-4 sentences. Must use sociological concepts and terms.**View this TED Talk by David Dow, a Death Row Attorney in Texas. For this discussion forum, let’s consider the topics of this week — Race & Ethnicity and Crime & Criminal Justice. (BOTH TOPICS ARE ATTACHED) Video: David Dow — Lessons from Death Row ( Is David Dow suggesting there might be a connection between these topics? Or, as sociologists, should we look more closely at Socioeconomic Status (SES)? David Dow provides wonderful insight using his expertise and experience as a death row attorney. What are your thoughts concerning his solution proposals? Can you think of additional types of solutions? **Please no plagiarism**In addition to these questions, I would like you to simply respond to 3 other students’ responses agreeing with them on something they wrote with consideration of other student’s point of view. This is simply agreeing with a total of 3 other students responses with 3 sentences.


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Crime and Social Control
Global Context:
Crime is ubiquitous; there is no country where crime does not exist.
Most countries have the same components in their criminal justice systems,
police, courts and prisons.
Worldwide, adult males make up the largest category of crime suspects.
In all countries, the most common crime committed is theft, violent crimes are
United States:
• One of the highest homicide rates.
• One of the highest rape rates.
• However, the overall crime rate in the United is decreasing.
• The United States has the highest incarceration rates in the world costing more
than $60 billion per year.
• Between 1971 and 2002, the prison population increased 600%
Transnational Crime:
• Organized criminal activity across one or more national borders.
• Chinese Triad – prostitution, drugs, organized crime activities.
• Columbian Cocaine Cartels
• Israeli Organized crime – ecstasy production in Netherlands
• Worldwide sex trade
• Terrorism
FBI Index offenses: the FBI identifies the most serious crimes in the U.S. as index
Violent Crimes:
1. Murder
2. Forcible rape
3. Robbery
4. Aggravated assault
Property Crimes:
1. Burglary
2. Larceny/theft
3. Motor Vehicle theft
4. Arson
Vice Crimes: these are considered victimless crimes – they have no complaining party.
Examples are:
1. Drug Use
2. Prostitution
3. Gambling
4. Pornography
White Collar Crime:
Toxic waste disposal
Pollution violations
Dangerous products
Health and safety violations
Police brutality
Business credit fraud
Deceptive advertising
Insider trading
White Collar Crime Homicide Descrepancy
2003 Death by Homicide (violent crime) = 16,5000
2003 Death by White Collar Crime = 113,025
1. Structural-Funtionalist Perspective:
• Crime is functional for society – supports an industry of social services, rehab
centers, and law enforcement at International, Federal, National, State and local
levels. In 2002, the criminal justice system cost approximately $90 Billion –
leading to higher costs every year due to the privatization of the prison system
(private sector increasingly supplies needed prison services).
• Deviant behavior strengthens group cohesion – people come together to express
their outrage at the criminal for his criminal behavior. Think of public hangings
and beheadings.
• Crime leads to social change – promotes community and social activism for
creating public-private partnerships (such as CERT following 9/11) and social
activism (some current activism in this country includes war protests, same-sex
marriage/adoption rights, and father’s rights groups lobbying for favorable
paternal custody laws and the 3-strikes law.).
Strain Theory (first structuralist funtionalist theory of crime that explains criminal
behavior as a result of blocked opportunities.)
• when legitimate means of acquiring culturally defined goals are limited by the
structure of society, the resulting strain may lead to crime..
• Individuals develop ways (through crime) to adapt to the inconsistencies between
means to achieve goals.
• Everyone in society is socialized to achieve the same goals – but not everyone
has the means by which to achieve those goals.
• Conformity – individuals accept culturally defined goals (education, hard work)
• Innovation – accepts the goals of society but rejects or lacks the socially
legitimate means of achieving them. Innovation explains high rates of crime in
uneducated and poor populations.
• Ritualism – accepts a lifestyle of hard work but rejects the cultural goal of
accumulating money and wealth.
• Retreatism – rejects both the cultural goal of success and the means of achieving
it. He withdraws or retreats from society and may become an alcoholic, drug
addict, or vagrant.
• Rebellion: Not only rejects both goals and the means to achieving those goals,
but substitutes new goals and means – sometimes through social or political
Subcultural Theory:
• Certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes that are
conducive to crime and violence.
• Members and others who interact with these groups and subcultures may adopt
the crime-promoting attitudes and values of the groups.
Control Theory:
• Tries to explain why all members of affected groups do not become criminals.
• Suggests that individuals with a strong social bond with the social order
constrains them from violating social norms.
• Four elements of social bond:
o Attachment to significant others
o Commitment to conventional goals
o Involvement in conventional activities
o Belief in the moral standards of society
2. Conflict Theories of Crime
• Deviance is inevitable whenever two groups have differing levels of
• The more inequality in a society, the greater the crime rate.
• Those in power define what is criminal and what is not.
• Vagrancy – to penalize those who do not contribute to capitalist systems
of work and consumption.
• Laws protect the ruling class and punish the working class.
• Tax laws – protect corporations and penalize the working people.
• In a society where there is less gender inequality, there is less rape.
3. Symbolic Interactionist Perspective:
• Labeling Theory: social groups create deviance by making rules whose
infraction constitutes deviance. Individuals or groups who violate rules are
labeled as deviant and as criminal.
• Deviant Behavior: is a behavior that people have labeled as being deviant.
• Primary Deviance: deviant behavior that is committed before the individual
is caught and labeled as a deviant or a criminal.
• Secondary Deviance: This type of deviance results from being caught and
labeled. After the person is caught violating the law, he/she is stigmatized as a
• Stigmatization often results in further deviant behavior because the person is
denied normal opportunities for engaging in non deviant behavior.
• Master Status: such labeling and stigmatization often results in the individual
adopting that label as his “master status.” A Master Status is the primary
basis by which a person is identified by others.
What is my Master Status?
What is your Master Status?
What is the Master Status of a teen caught selling meth in his high school?
Differential Association: Through interaction with others, individuals learn the
values and attitudes associated with crime as well as the techniques and
motivation for criminal behavior.
Being exposed to more favorable definitions for criminal behavior are more likely
to engage in criminal behavior.
Children who grow up seeing their children benefit from crime, are more likely to
engage in criminal behavior.
4. Feminist Perspectives of Crime and Social Control
Gender and Crime
Females commit fewer violent crimes than males.
2003, males accounted for 77% of all arrests for violent crime
males account for 82.2% of all arrests for property crimes
monetary value of female involvement in theft, property damage,
and illegal drugs is less than it is for males.
e. However, the number of women in gang related crimes is
Feminist Criminology: focuses on how the subordinate position of women in society
affects their criminal behavior.
a. Arrest rates for runaway females is higher than it is for runaway males. This is
because females are more likely to runaway from physical and sexual abuse in
their family homes. Girls runaway at higher rates than boys.
b. A female in the U.S. is 5x more likely to be murdered than a female in Germany
c. A female in the U.S. is 8x more likely to be murdered than a female in England
d. A female in the U.S. is 3x more likely to me murdered than a female in Canada
e. When an American female is murdered, it is most likely by an ex-boyfriend,
husband, or other intimate.
Feminist Perspectives on Crime
There is no single feminist theory, but overall, feminist theory is a womancentered description and explanation of human experience and the social
world. Is suggests that gender governs every aspect of personal and social life.
The purpose of feminist theory is to end sexist oppression
Argues that women and girls were routinely excluded from most studies and
theories in criminology.
Argues that if women and girls were included in some studies, they were
gender stereotyped (black women’s behavior as a clear violation of what
women are supposed to behave like – based on accepted white woman
behavior and white male expectations).
Feminists have identified the importance of examining childhood traumas
such as physical and sexual abuse and neglect and how these place youth at
risk of offending.
Feminists also identify how intimate partner abuse puts women at risk of
offending (in self defense or out of fear for her children’s safety or out of fear
for her life).
Feminist solutions for women’s prisons include the need to provide programs
and opportunities to maintain contact between incarcerated women and their
children – including housing for infants and small children within the prison
Feminists recognize that women and girls do not cause their sexual, stalking,
and intimate partner abuse victimizations. They point out that to better guide
men in discontinuing their violence and violating behaviors, the socialization
of men and boys must change.
The “War on Drugs” has contributed to the explosion of women inmates in
the prison system.
Women and girls who use drugs face harsher societal disapproval than drugusing men and boys.
Women and girls are more likely to be introduced to drugs by their husbands
and boyfriends. Boys are more likely to be introduce to drugs by other males
Feminist Pathways:
• Uses women and girls voices to determine “life course” events that place them at
risk of criminal and deviant behavior.
• Interviews women and girls about their lives, attempting to determine how or why
they got to where they are.
• Pathways attempts to give women and girls voice in explaining the link between
childhood and adult events and traumas and the likelihood of criminal behavior
and offending.
• Example: Prostitutes were compared to normal or non prostitute populations.
• Prostitutes reported more troubling sexual experiences including incestuous and
coerced sex, lack of parental guidance, intercourse at a young age and few or no
meaningful relationships with males. Why might these experiences predict future
a. the lack of parental monitoring and guidance leads to the increased likelihood of
early and causal sexual intercourse.
b. Young women and young girls learn that sex both adds to and detracts from her
social status, with sex, she has a new found power over males, but if she is a
virgin it makes her unacceptable to the majority of her youth culture.
c. Rape and incest experiences are emotionally destructive and long lasting.
Slide 2 Race/Ethnicity:
Race: A category of people who are believed to share distinct physical characteristics that are
deemed socially significant. The division of people sometimes on the basis of skin color, hair
texture, facial features, body shape or size.
Racism: The belief that race accounts for differences in human character and ability and that a
particular race is superior to others. Racism is a prejudice that asserts one race is inferior to
another, thus making them less worthy of fair treatment.
Ethnicity: A shared cultural heritage or nationality. Ethnic groups can be distinguished on the
basis of language, forms of family structures and roles of family members, religious beliefs and
practices, dietary customs, forms of artistic expression such as music and dance. Ethnic labels
are often misleading ( a Black American and a Black Jamaican or a Cuban and a Mexican or
Puerto Rican)
Minority Group: a category of people who have unequal access to positions of power, prestige,
and wealth in a society and who tend to be targets of prejudice and discrimination. Minority
status is not based on numerical representation in society, but rather on social status.
Slide 3 Prejudice/Discrimination:
Prejudice: Negative attitudes and feelings toward or about an entire category of people.
Prejudice can be directed toward religion, sexual orientation, political affiliation, age, social
class, sex, race or ethnicity.
We learn prejudice through socialization, I was socialized to hate and fear black men, because
they are rapists, criminals, and not as good as whites. Individuals adopt the goals and beliefs of
their family, peers
Discrimination: Actions or practices that result in differential treatment of categories of
Individual discrimination: when individuals treat other individuals unfairly or unequally because
of the their group membership.
Overt: when the individual discriminates because of his or her own prejudicial attitudes (white landlord
refusing to rent to blacks).
Institutional Discrimination: When normal operations and procedures of social institutions result in
unequal treatment of and opportunities for minorities. Institutional discrimination is covert and
insidious and maintains the subordinate position of minorities in society.
Ethnocentrism: the belief that one’s own group is superior, groups values and behaviors are right and
better than all others. Also, thinking about or defining another culture on the basis of your own.
Slide 4 Segregation:
The enforced separation from the dominant group based on factors such as race, gender, or
1960s & earlier embraced, “separate but equal”
Today, segregation is illegal, but still persists.
Unofficial segregation continues to this day. Researchers find that blacks of various income levels
experience similar segregation from whites. Income inequality is one of the biggest reasons – racial
minorities generally earn less money and cannot afford to live in wealthy neighborhoods dominated by
whites (Carl, 2013:49).
Slide 5 Stereotypes:
Stereotypes: over simplified generalized images of members of a particular group or an exaggeration
about the characteristics and behavior of a particular group. These simplified and extreme perceptions
of an entire group of people are usually based on false assumptions.
Have you ever heard any of these stereotypes?
Asians are model students.
Black men are not good fathers
Black men are criminals
Mexican families do not value education
Minorities are lazy and soak the American system (primarily in education and health care)
Blondes are air-headed.
Women are terrible drivers.
Slide 6 Immigration:
Immigration: The influx of peoples from other countries into the United States.
Historical Examples of Immigration: The first 100 years of U.S. history anyone was allowed to
immigrate. Chinese, Irish, Italians, Poles… Immigrants from nonwhite, non-European countries
created fear and resentment among native-born Americans. This fear eventually led to
legislation that restricted or halted the immigration of various national groups such as the
Chinese. Today, most immigrants come to the U.S. from Asia and Mexico and middle or South
American countries.
Why do they come here: Push and Pull theory suggests that the many hardships experienced by
poor people throughout the world “pushes” them to leave their countries and the economic
opportunities that exist in affluent countries “pull” them to those countries.
The life of an immigrant is a difficult adjustment in the U.S. First, they endure prejudice,
discrimination and lack of social support. Many work very hard to succeed educationally and
occupationally. Native born Americans believe that immigrants are taking away their jobs.
Immigrants are more likely to live in poverty and be unemployed. Nearly half of all immigrants
work at or below the minimum wage. In many states, immigrants are not eligible for state
assistance programs such as food stamps, cash aid, and Medical. Many immigrants are afraid to
seek services because of their citizenship status.
Slide 7 Types of Immigrants:
Labor Immigrants are those who migrate to a new country because they are seeking work. We
have many such immigrants doing farm work in the U.S. and day workers.
Professional Immigrants are those who migrate to a new country because they possess some
skill or profession. The U.S. has a high rate of engineers from the country of India.
Entrepreneurial Immigrants are people who migrate because they seek to own their own
Slide 8 Multiculturalism/Assimilation:
Multiculturalism is a concept that supports the inherent value of different cultures within
Proponents of multiculturalism think that immigrants should maintain links to their original
culture — such as language, cultural beliefs, traditions and religion — while also integrating into
their new culture.
Opponents of multiculturalism worry that this practice keeps groups from adapting to the
dominant culture.
Assimilation is the process by which minority groups adopt the patterns of the dominant
culture. Assimilation can be voluntary, but it can also be forced through policies like the English
Only Laws.
Rapid Assimilation occurs when a minority group completely abandons its previous culture in
favor of a new one. One example of rapid assimilation is when the government took Native
American students from their parents and placed them in boarding schools to teach them
“white ways.” A latent or unintended consequence was that many of these students left the
boarding home unprepared to live in either the dominant culture or their own culture.
Segmented Assimilation is the idea that there is more than one way to adopt a new land and
become economically and socially successful. Traditional thought has held that the faster
immigrants become acculturated to the U.S. and give up the culture of their home country, the
faster they will achieve successful assimilation. However, poor immigrants are now necessarily
exposed to the ‘right’ elements of the new culture (opportunities for a safe neighborhood, a
good job, lucrative career, a good education, or reliable healthcare, etc. . . ), instead, they are
acculturated to the culture of poor inner-city residents and do not learn the elements associated
with middle-class ideals of success.
History of Immigration – see table on P. 50. Chinese Exclusion Act (1882), Immigration Act
(1891), Immigration Act (1924), Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments (1965),
Immigrant Control and Reform Act (1986), Immigrations Act (1990), Armed Forces Immigration
Act (1991), Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), Illegal
Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act (1996).
Source – data from Immigration Legal History, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, U.S.
Department of Homeland Security
English Only Laws are social policies dealing with assimilation and are met with passionate
responses from both sides of the issue.
Pros: having an official language unites the country, provides an incentive for new immigrants to
assimilate more quickly, save costs because government documents no long need to address
multiple languages, ensures that the history of the country and its language remains intact and
people must learn English in order to work, shop, and interact with society.
Cons: English Only laws are anti-immigrant because they make it harder for immigrants to
obtain driver’s licenses, find work, and interact with social structure in U.S. and such laws can be
used to weaken the educational opportunities of non-English-speaking children.
Also, the fear of losing English as the national language is unfounded. The U.S. Census Bureau

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