Notes: Although there is a minimum word count of 3500 words for this exam, you will find that it is likely going to require more than
the minimum to fully answer the question. You may not copy or quote from any source. All information must be re-written in your
own words. Answer all questions. Question 01: Blood Circulation Patterns (875 words)
Describe the functional changes in blood circulation patterns of chordates from the most primitive to the most advanced. Include in
your answer:
a. the pattern of circulation and function of blood in the Lancelet, Branchiostoma lanceolatum b. the general blood circulation pattern of fishes and the special case of fishes with lungs or swim bladders
c. the transition in blood circulation pattern from tadpole to adult frog during metamorphosis
d. the blood circulatory adaptations of reptiles, birds and mammalsQuestion 02: From Amniote Egg to Mammals (875 words)
Describe amniote eggs and the transition from animals that lay eggs to placental mammals. Include in your answer:
a. the functions of the amniote egg membranes
b. the production of bird eggs and the structure and function of the calcified shells of bird eggs, c. the adaptations seen in the fossil record that supported the transition from pre-mammal synapsid egg-layers to modern,
placental mammals that nurse their young Question 03: Bird Flight: Mechanics, Weight, Balance and Power (875 words)
Describe flight mechanics and adaptations for flight in birds. Include in your answer: a. the modern explanation of flight mechanics as described in the text,
b. descriptions of adaptations for flight that reduce weight and those that contribute to balance around the center of gravity,
c. descriptions of mechanisms that increase power (physiological and structural properties, such as food selection, respiratory
refinements, heart rate, mechanical leverage, etc.). Question 04: Kidneys, Rats and Otters (875 words)
Describe the specialized mechanisms for conserving water while ridding the body of nitrogenous metabolic wastes. Include in your
answer:
a. the structure and function of organs of excretion of increasing complexity for flatworms, annelids, and insects
b. the special adaptations for water conservation of Sea Otters in ocean waters and Kangaroo Rats in deserts
c. the mechanisms and structural adaptations of the vertebrate kidney for eliminating urea and controlling water loss References
Immediately following the essay, two lines below the last line of your essay, list all sources used in writing your essay to
answer the question. Do not use in-text citations and do not use footnotes. Simply list your sources in this “References”
section. You must have a References section with at least five references which you have used in preparing your answers:

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