Although there is a minimum word count of 3500 words for this exam, you will find that it is likely going to require more than
the minimum to fully answer the question. You may not copy or quote from any source. All information must be re-written in your
own words. Answer all questions. No Plagiarizing.Question 01: Animal Life Histories (about 875 word count)
Describe the life histories of the following animals that undergo metamorphosis: Pseudoceros (Platyhelminthes), Micrura (Nemertea),
Culiseta (Arthropoda), and Chelidonura (Mollusca). Include in your answer: a. a description of the feeding behavior of the different stages in their life histories b. a description of the reproductive strategy that necessitates metamorphosis c. a description of the adaptations that are different in the larva and the adultQuestion 02: Advances of Higher Invertebrates (about 875 words)
Using polychaete annelids and insects in general, describe the defining characteristics of each group and highlight each of the
advances of insects (arthropods) compared to polychaetes (annelids). Include in your answer:
a. the definitions of a “advanced” versus “primitive” characteristics
b. the defining characteristics of annelids and of insects that set them apart from other animals c. a description of the structure and function of each arthropod advance and the advantage it might confer to those arthropods
possessing it . . . as many advances as you are able, with ten being a minimal numberQuestion 03: Mollusc Successes (about 875 words)
Describe the diversity of adaptations of molluscs that have contributed to their phenomenal success. Include in your answer:
a. the nature and production of the shells of abalone
b. feeding mechanisms of a gastropod (sea hare), a bivalve (clam), and a cephalopod (squid). c. mechanisms that control buoyancy in Sepia, Nautilus, Loligo and Octopus d. mechanisms of color production and color change in squidQuestion 04: Hemichordates (about 875 words)
Describe the enteroneust hemichordates (acorn worms). Include in your answer:
a. a description of the five unique chordate characteristics and a description of the body plan and various characteristics of the
non-chordate acorn worms that place them among the deuterostomes and lead to the common name “hemichordate”. That
is, what are the characteristics of acorn worms that make them deuterostomes and “nearly chordates” and which true
chordate characters do they lack? b. a description of the feeding mechanism of acorn worms
c. a description of the circulatory system and the unique association of the circulatory and excretory systems in hemichordates References
Immediately following the essay, two lines below the last line of your essay, list all sources used in writing your essay to
answer the question. Do not use in-text citations and do not use footnotes. Simply list your sources in this “References”
section. You must have a References section with at least five references which you have used in preparing your answers

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